CURRENT TRENDS IN TRANSLATION TEACHING AND LEARNING 2021
Mike Garant 1 – 3 FULL TEXT
Beijing Institute of Technology, Zhuhai
AN ONLINE REPOSITORY OF PYTHON RESOURCE FOR TEACHING MACHINE TRANSLATION TO TRANSLATION STUDENTS
Ralph Krüger 4 –20 FULL TEXT
TH Köln (University of Applied Sciences)
This paper presents an online repository of Python resources aimed at teaching the technical dimension of machine translation to students of translation studies programmes. The Python resources provided in this repository are Jupyter notebooks. These are web-based computational environments in which students can run commented blocks of code in order to perform MT-related tasks such as exploring word embeddings, preparing MT training data, training open-source machine translation systems or calculating automatic MT quality metrics such as BLEU, METEOR, BERTScore or COMET. The notebooks are prepared in such a way that students can interact with them even if they have had little to no prior exposure to the Python programming language. The notebooks are provided as open-source resources under the MIT License and can be used and modified by translator training institutions which intend to make their students familiar with the more technical aspects of modern machine translation technology. Institutions who would like to contribute their own Python-based teaching resources to the repository are welcome to do so.
Keywords: translation technology, machine translation, natural language processing, translation didactics, Jupyter notebooks, Python programming
‘IT FELT LIKE WE WERE ALL HANGING OUT WHILE TALKING ABOUT TRANSLATION THEORY’: LESSONS LEARNED FROM A FLIPPED TRANSLATION THEORY COURSE IN EMERGENCY REMOTE TEACHING DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC
Nataša Pavlović 34 –85 FULL TEXT
University of Zagreb
The role of translation theory in translator education seems to be undergoing a crisis as universities struggle to provide graduates with practical, market-driven skills that will increase their employability. The overnight transition to online delivery in the time of educational disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has only heightened the challenges in making theoretical courses relevant for students. This paper explores the application of the flipped classroom model in a translation theory course on the graduate (MA) level, delivered in the context of emergency remote teaching. The course is described and evaluated with the help of student feedback (N=30) elicited via an online questionnaire. The main source of data are responses to open-ended questions, which are analysed qualitatively. The data are coded for general perceptions of the flipped classroom and its four course components (videos, experimental translation assignments, forum discussion assignments, synchronous Zoom discussions), as well as for perceptions of teacher support. Lessons are drawn for emergency remote teaching but also for future face-to-face teaching of theory-oriented translation courses.
Keywords: flipped classroom, teacher support, translation theory, emergency remote teaching, YouTube, Zoom
THE GIRL UP PROJECT: A PROPOSAL TO TEACH TRANSCREATION AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT SKILLS
Oliver Carreira 86 –123 FULL TEXT
Pablo de Olavide University | Interglosia RG
Technology is quickly disrupting the language services industry. These abrupt changes may worsen the employability of translation students, who require new skills to adapt to this changing market. Transcreation, a type of creative translation that mostly takes place in the marketing and advertising areas, can be an empowering area for students in terms of professional development and employability. To familiarize undergraduate translation students with transcreation practices, we have developed the “Girl Up Project”: a situated training initiative oriented to consolidate theoretical concepts on the topic, develop their organizational and creative skills, improve their teamwork abilities and establish a clear connection between the training initiative and the industry. The outcomes of the project seem to confirm that this type of initiative is useful to improve the knowledge of students on transcreation and transcreation project management skills.
Keywords: transcreation, translation training, situated learning, employability, simulated projects
HEALTHCARE INTERPRETING: FILLING THE TRAINING GAP TO ACHIEVE REQUIRED COMPETENCES
Wang Xi and Raquel Lázaro Gutiérrez
University of Alcalá 124 –153 FULL TEXT
At a time when societies are becoming more demographically diverse, the employment of professional interpreters to facilitate communication between healthcare practitioners and patients is of great benefit to both patients and the healthcare system. However, as an emerging profession, the definition of the professionalism of practitioners is not very clear, and there are gaps in the training they receive. Taking this into account, this article is mainly divided into two sections. Firstly, we analyse the models about interpreting competence made by different researchers, find their respective characteristics, and integrate them to obtain a model of competence applicable to healthcare interpreting. Secondly, we take Spain as an example of a recent immigration country with a long history of interpreting training. Based on the above mentioned competence model we have analysed syllabi of all formal training courses on interpretation and those representative informal training ones to explore whether they can meet student training needs regarding the requirements of stakeholders. The research results show that due to the limited diversity of language combinations, there is a shortage in thematic knowledge, terminology referring to specific cultural aspects corresponding to each language and the development of corresponding strategic competence. Furthermore, the development of the healthcare (thematic) subcompetence seems to be still an unfinished business. In order to fill these gaps, we have put forward recommendations to the establishment of a complete training system for the long run, as well as a fast-reacting and more feasible option that can be implemented at an earlier stage.
Keywords: healthcare interpreting, interpreting competence, training gap
IMPACTS OF GLOBAL PANDEMIC ON TRANSLATOR’S CAREER AND TRANSLATOR TRAINING
Ramunė Kasperė and Jurgita Motiejūnienė
Kaunas University of Technology 154 –195 FULL TEXT
The translation market as well as many other businesses and activities have been affected by the lockdown of economies in the whole world since the beginning of 2019. Under the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic, translator’s career has undergone some major and minor transformations. Some recent research papers have focused on crisis-related situations and emphasised the fact that translators need to be ready to ensure an effective communication between all stakeholders in disaster settings (Rodriguez Vazquez & Silvia Torres del Rey, 2020). Therefore, the methods and approaches in translation training have to be re-examined in order to provide language support in crises (Federici & O’Brien, 2019). This research was designed to examine and depict the effects of the global pandemic and the lockdown on the translator’s profession and translator training in graduate and postgraduate education. The paper analyses the insights and attitudes expressed in surveys by different players in the Lithuanian translation market, including freelance translators and interpreters, language service providers and translation students. The results highlight different opinions of freelance translators and translation students about the future of their career, trust of freelance translators towards the state support and translation agencies at which they are hired, and anxiety of language service providers towards the stability of the industry in crises situations. The results of the research further indicate the necessity to develop translation study programmes focussing on a wider skillset so that future translators would be well equipped to contribute to communication and well-being of different members of society in crisis settings.
Keywords: COVID-19, pandemic, translator training, translation industry, language service providers, LSPs.
INSIGHTS INTO TECHNICAL TRANSLATION COURSE DESIGN
Marie-France Guénette 196 – 235 FULL TEXT
This article offers theoretical and pragmatic insights into the nature of technical translation course design. In so doing, I first provide a definition of specialized translation based on a survey of the literature in this field, conducted collaboratively with a research assistant. Then, I present a comparative table sourcing how technical translation has been taught, as a university course, across Canadian higher education institutions. Following this, I offer a rationale for student-oriented ways of teaching this course, all the while giving concrete steps to co-explore novel topics with undergraduate and graduate students. Finally, I generate a series of considerations and questions for further inquiry into the instruction of technical translation in Canada and worldwide.
Keywords: technical translation, specialized translation, English-French translation, translation pedagogy, course design
REFINING THE PIE METHOD (PRESELECTED ITEMS EVALUATION) IN TRANSLATOR TRAINING
Amy Colman, Winibert Segers and Heidi Verplaetse
KU Leuven 236 – 275 FULL TEXT
This paper explains how to use the PIE method, a criterion- and norm-referenced analytical translation evaluation method, with particular emphasis on translator training. In addition, it sheds light on the test construct and the preparation phase that precedes the PIE evaluation. The source text and item selection, as well as the dichotomous categorisation of translation solutions are discussed in detail. This paper also clarifies and refines two contentious issues in the psychometric component of the PIE method. Firstly, the p-value range, which the authors have revised. Secondly, the calculation of the d-index by means of the extreme groups method. The authors propose two additional methods to calculate the d-index, viz., the adjusted and unadjusted item-total correlation, which, unlike the extreme groups method, take into account all test takers rather than just a set percentage of test takers.
Keywords: PIE, Preselected Items Evaluation, translation evaluation, translator training
TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER TRAINING DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: PROCEDURAL, TECHNICAL AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS IN REMOTE TRAINING
Emília Perez and Soňa Hodáková 276 – 312 FULL TEXT
Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Slovakia
The main focus of the study lies on the challenges in translation and interpreting university training in the changed environment of the COVID-19 pandemic. It reflects the significant changes in training and learning in Slovakia after shifting from campus-based training to remote training, investigating the key factors influencing the learning process of students from their perspective. Based on the results of a focus group discussion with students, their qualitative analysis and quantitative verification via an online survey at all Slovak universities that provide translation and interpreting study programme, three types of factor were identified. The first category – procedural factors – relates to the training process itself; technical factors relate to technical aspects and limitations influencing the education of students; and psychosocial factors reflect intra- and interpersonal aspects affecting students in either a positive or negative way. Investigation of these factors provides useful findings on the learning experience of students during the current crisis.
Key words: university training, translation and interpreting, COVID-19, learning experience, remote training, students’ perspective
FROM SKILL-ACQUISITION TO DYNAMIC LEARNING: LEARNING-ORIENTED ASSESSMENT IN THE SIGHT TRANSLATION CLASSROOM
Xueni Zhang 313 – 358 FULL TEXT
Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University
The University of Nottingham
Assessment, previously associated with the evaluation of learning outcomes, has recently been recognised as an integral part of the learning process. Learning-oriented assessment (LOA) is an educational model that foregrounds the role of assessment in classroom-based learning activities. However, in translator education, assessment is mostly approached from a skill-acquisition perspective; translation is regarded more as a skill to acquire than as a learning activity. This article presents an alternative view of assessment in translator education by presenting the findings of a 12-week case study, conducted with 20 students registered in a sight translation module, which based its teaching (and assessment) on LOA principles. Classroom observation was conducted to align LOA with the classroom context, and follow-up interviews were carried out to investigate students’ perceptions regarding the in-class activities. In order to evaluate the feasibility and accountability of the model, the three tenets of LOA were aligned with module design and discussed alongside students’ perceptions. The findings indicate the suitability of incorporating LOA into translator education, with implications for translation trainers and researchers concerning the integration of assessment and learning.
Keywords: learning-oriented assessment, translator education, sight translation
THE HISPATAV TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES FOR SUBTITLING: A NEW PEDAGOGICAL RESOURCE FOR AUDIOVISUAL TRANSLATION STUDENTS
Patrick Zabalbeascoa and Blanca Arias-Badia
Universitat Pompeu Fabra 359 – 393 FULL TEXT
Being able to propose a taxonomy of translation techniques has been a long-standing aspiration of translation theorists. By building on previous proposals, this paper presents the HispaTAV typology of translation techniques (ToT), a new list specifically designed for subtitling trainees. The aim of the proposal is to increase students’ awareness of the variety of possible solutions to translate segments of the source text, and to promote creativity, a key factor in the development of translator competence. The proposal has been presented to current translation students, who have provided feedback in terms of its usability for learning purposes.
Keywords: translation techniques, subtitling, HispaTAV, audiovisual translation, translator competence
POLISH-ENGLISH CERTIFIED INTERPRETERS IN PSYCHO-AFFECTIVELY CHALLENGING CONTEXTS
Marcin Walczyński 359 – 448 FULL TEXT
University of Wrocław
The purpose of this article is to bring to light selected Polish-English certified interpreters’ working contexts which trigger the activation of those interpreters’ psycho-affectivity. In other words, this study aims at illuminating those occupational settings in which Polish-English certified interpreters working in Poland experience psycho-affective factors which – in turn – can affect adversely interpreting quality. The first part of the article presents the concept of the interpreter’s psycho-affectivity with its constituent elements – seven psycho-affective factors (i.e., anxiety, fear, language inhibition/language ego/language boundaries, extroversion/introversion/ambiversion, self-esteem, motivation and stress). What follows is an overview of the profile of a Polish-English certified interpreter by referring to some legal and practical issues inherent in this profession practised in Poland. The final section of this article is devoted to the analysis of several occupational contexts (i.e., courtroom, notary’s office, police station, hospital) in which the studied interpreters’ psycho-affectivity comes into play by affecting the interpreters and their interpreting performance. The data for the analysis were derived from factual, attitudinal and behavioural data collected during a qualitative psycho-affectivity-related study conducted among 76 Polish-English interpreters.
Keywords: psycho-affective factors, interpreter’s psycho-affectivity, certified interpreters, occupational contexts of interpreting, consecutive interpreting
I PARTICIPATE, THEREFORE I AM: A STUDY ON STUDENTS’ EFFORTS OF HELPING GOOGLE TRANSLATE TO REFINE ITS TRANSLATION RESULTS
Cheryl Wei-yu Chen 449 – 482 FULL TEXT
National Taipei University of Business
This study invited a group of Taiwanese English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) tertiary-level students to help Google Translate (GT) Community to refine its translation output. The participants engaged in 5 types of translation refinement tasks by responding to the input provided by GT Community (the first four tasks) or entering translation suggestions when encountering inappropriate translation generated by GT (the fifth task). The results indicated that the participants were able to generate highly accurate output for the first four tasks. With regard to the fifth task, many students entered proverbs, idioms, cultural expressions or slang for GT to translate and deemed GT’s inability to translate beyond literal meaning as something to be improved upon. There were also nearly 25% of over-correction due to students’ excessive scrutiny. All in all, students generally enjoyed the experience of helping GT to improve its translation quality. As students took the role of active contributors of knowledge, they developed competence and gained experience of participating in the digital world. Their participation also helped them to refine their language knowledge and developed their research abilities. The current study ends with a few possible directions for future research.
Keywords: Google Translate (GT), Google Translate Community,
translation refinement tasks, online participation
SHOULD TRANSLATION TEACHING BE INCORPORATED INTO ‘REGULAR’ ENGLISH CLASSROOMS?
Dorota Osuchowska 483 – 509 FULL TEXT
University of Rzeszów
A survey conducted on four different groups of professionally active subjects from the Subcarpathian region, Poland, revealed that employees who work in multilingual settings are regularly entrusted with typical translation and/or interpreting tasks that arise in such settings. Simultaneously, as also evidenced from the answers they provided, none of the courses of English they attended have prepared them for acting in the role of, as they referred to themselves, ‘substitute translators’. The major stress in these classrooms the eighty participants were part of was typically placed on preparing a learner for situations in which one needs to express oneself in L2 and not for situations in which one is required to translate or interpret. This has resulted in some of the participants’ suggestion for a special form of language pedagogy that would take into account that translation outside the classroom seems to have become the norm in contemporary global economy. The study, which ends with a brief presentation of the subjects’ ideas, may be of interest to educationalists in the field of Translation Studies whose expertise may be exploited for the purpose of helping experts in ELT design suitable teaching materials.
Keywords: teaching translation, English for Occupational Purposes, learners’ needs, TEFL, syllabus design
THE TEACHING OF LITERARY TRANSLATION AND THE CONSISTENCY OF EQUIVALENTS TO OBTAIN FUNCTIONAL TARGET NARRATIVES: ANALYSIS OF THE RENDERING OF MOBY DICK BY HERMAN MELVILLE FROM ENGLISH INTO SPANISH
Robert Szymyślik 510 – 539 FULL TEXT
Universidad Pablo de Olavide (Seville, Spain)
This paper was developed to draw conclusions about the teaching methods that can be applied to the translation of literary works and about the study of the needs for consistency concerning rendering options in order for students to produce functional target narratives. It was carried out through the analysis of the novel entitled Moby Dick by Herman Melville from English into Spanish from the point of view of transversal narrative coherence. It centres its attention on the multiple translation options that can be employed to transfer specific extracts of this novel (such as verbs and pronouns whose equivalents must be maintained throughout the complete text) and on showing the importance of a consistent use of these translation options to obtain a functional target text.
Keywords: literary translation, Melville, Moby Dick, narrative consistency, translation teaching
Liu, Chuan. (2019). An Introduction to Translatology of Industrial Engineering Interpretation and Translation. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press. pp. xii+617. ISBN 978-7-5446-5772-3.
Jianzhong Xu 540 – 542 FULL TEXT
Tianjin University of Technology
Kelly Washbourne & Ben Van Wyke (eds.). (2019). The Routledge Handbook of Literary Translation. London/New York: Routledge. pp. xiv+586. ISBN 978-1-1386-9929-8.
Chengfa Yu 543 – 546 FULL TEXT
Hunan Normal University
Hunan Normal University
Yue, Feng. (2018). The Interaction Between Consciousness and Translation. Beijing: Beijing University Press. pp. 241. ISBN 978-7-301-29942-5.
Feng Lin 547 – 549 FULL TEXT
Fuzhou University of International Studies and Trade
Wuhan University of Technology